Citations

FFAC Citations

Slide 3

Photo: http://animal.agwired.com/2008/09/03/foster-farms-now-crystal/

 

Slide 4

CAFO:

What is a CAFO?” U.S Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Web.http://www.epa.gov/region7/water/cafo/

All photos public domain from Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 5

4 companies currently produce (pig and broiler):  Testimony by Leland Swenson, president of the U.S. National Farmers’ Union, before the House Judiciary Committee, September 12, 2000. (cited in Foer 162).

4 companies currently produce (cow): Gardner, Timothy. “Working Conditions in American Slaughterhouses: Worse than You Thought,” Reuters, Feb. 2001. (cited in Foer 162)

More than ½ a million hog farmers have gone out of business”:

Johnson, Nathaneal. "The Making of the Modern Pig." Harper's Magazine May 2006: n. (cited in Foer 158).

Photo: American Gothic by Grant Wood, public domain

 

Slide 6

Graph:

Perry, Mark J. "As a Share of Household Spending, U.S. Has Most Affordable Food in World & It's Never Been Better.” CARPE DIEM. N.p., 01 July 2012. Web.

 

Slide 7

Total number animals killed every year:

Farm Animal Statistics: Slaughter Totals." Humane Society of the United States. 2014. Web. http://www.humanesociety.org/news/resources/research/stats_slaughter_totals.html

 

Slide 8:

99% of all animal products: 2007 Census Inventory and EPA Regulations:

Foer, Jonathan S. Eating Animals. New York: Little, Brown, 2009. 12. Print.

Percentage animals raised in CAFO’s:

2007 Census Inventory and EPA Regulations.” National Agricultural Statistics Service Report. 2008. (cited in Foer 12).

 

Slide 11

Chickens produce 300 eggs/year that’s 3x natural amount:

History of Egg Production.” Incredible Edible Egg. American Egg Board. 2007. Web.http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg_facts_history2.html

Photo: Animal Place

 

Slide 12

Debeaking:

United Egg Producers Animal Husbandry Guidelines for U.S. Egg Laying Flocks.”Alpharetta, GA: United Egg Producers. 2008. Web. http://www.uepcertified.com

Photos: http://www.humanemyth.org/images/1059.1.jpg

http://liberationbc.org/issues/eggs

 

Slide 13

Video: Undercover investigation by Mercy for Animals

 

Slide 14

97% of egg laying hens FF statistic:

2007 Census Inventory and EPA Regulations.” National Agricultural Statistics Service Report. 2008. (cited in Foer 12).

67 square inches FF statistic:

United Egg Producers Animal Husbandry Guidelines for U.S. Egg Laying Flocks.”Alpharetta, GA: United Egg Producers. 2008. Web. http://www.uepcertified.com

Photo 1: Wikimedia Commons

Photo 2: Compassion Over Killing

 

Slide 15

Chickens live for 6-8 years & slaughtered at 2 years old FF statistic:

Berry, Joe. “Often Asked Questions about Poultry and Eggs.” Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service, Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. n.d. Web. http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-2098/ANSI-8402web.pdf

Life expectancy in wild vs. age of slaughter in FF:

Reese, Frank. “Good Shepherd Poultry Ranch, Personal Correspondence.” July. 2009. (cited in Foer 48).

Photo: Animal Place

 

Slide 16

250 million male layers discarded each year:

Appleby, M.C., et al. “Poultry Behaviour and Welfare.” Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2004. 184 (cited in Foer 48).

Photo: Humane League Labs

 

Slide 17

Photo:https://kittybloger.wordpress.com/2012/06/17/kitty-gives-baby-chick-a-piggy-back-ride/

 

Slide 18

Photo: Animal Place

 

Slide 19

Broilers grow so rapidly:

Martin, D. “Researcher Studying Growth-Induced Diseases in Broilers.” Feedstuffs. 1997. Print.

Average weight increase, drop in time to market, daily feed requirements:

William, Boyd. “Making Meat: Science, Technology, and American Poultry Production,” Technology and Culture. 2001. (cited from Foer 106).

Daily growth rate increase:

Knowles, T.G. “Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention.” PLoS ONE. 2008. (cited from Foer 48). http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545

Photo: Food, Inc.

 

Slide 20

26% broiler chickens severely crippled:

Kestin, S.C. “Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype.” Veterinary Record. 29 Aug. 1992: 131, 190-194. Print.

90% broiler chickens can’t walk normally:

Kestin, S.C. “Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype.” Veterinary Record. 29 Aug. 1992: 131, 190-194. Print.

Photo: http://chickenrescueandrehabilitation.com/2010/09/

 

Slide 21

Workers crate 105 chickens in 3.5 min:

Blood, Sweat, and Fear: Workers’ Rights in US Meat and Poultry Plants.” New York: Human Rights Watch. 2004. (cited from Foer 104).

30% birds arriving with freshly broken bones:

T.G. Knowles. “Handling and Transport of Spent Hens,” World’s Poultry Science Journal. 1994. Pgs. 60-61 (cited from Foer 132).

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 22

Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter.“ USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service.

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 23

1/10th level necessary to kill birds:

Craig, E.W., Fletchere, D.L. “Processing and Products: A Comparison of High Current and Low Voltage Electrical Stunning Systems on Broiler Breast Rigor Development and Meat Quality.” Poultry Science. Vol. 76. No. 8. 1997. Pgs. 1178-1179.

180 mil chickens improperly slaughtered each year:

Zwerdling, Daniel. “A View to Kill,” Gourmet. June 2007. (Cited from Foer 133).http://www.gourmet.com/magazine/2000s/2007/06/aviewtoakill

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 24

4 million chickens boiled alive:

Freedom of Information Act #94-363. Poultry Slaughtered, Condemned, and Cadavers. Cited in “Poultry Slaughter: The Need for Legislation.” United Poultry Concerns. 1994. (Cited from Foer 133). www.upc-online.org/slaughter/slaughter3web.pdf

Photo: www.meyn.com

 

Slide 26

Cage free:

Cage-Free vs. Battery-Cage Eggs.” The Humae Society of the United States. http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/cage-free_vs_battery-cage.html

Photo: Wikimedia commons

 

Slide 27

Free range:

Fact Sheet: Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms.” USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Apr. 2011. Web. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/food-labeling/meat-and-poultry-labeling-terms/meat-and-poultry-labeling-terms

Photo: Animal Legal Defense Fund

 

Slide 28

Organic Label:

Labeling Organic Products.” Agricultural Marketing Service. USDA. Web. 
http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3004446

Photo: USDA

 

Slide 29

Humane Label:

The Truth Behind Humane Labels.” Farm Sanctuary. Brochure. 2012. Web.http://www.farmsanctuary.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Truth-Behind-Humane-FINAL-4-21-09.pdf

Photo: Compassion Over Killing

 

Slide 30

Photo: HerbertT, via Wikipedia

 

Slide 31

75% of adults worldwide are lactose intolerant to some extent:

Improved Lactose Digestion and Intolerance among African-American Adolescent Girls Fed a Dairy-rich Diet.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2000.

Photo: Animal Place

 

Slide 32

Rape:

Webb, D.W. “Artificial Insemination of Dairy Cattle.” University of Florida Electronic Data Information Source. Web. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Photo: http://www.thebeefsite.com/articles/721/artificial-insemination-for-beef-cattle

 

Slide 33

Video: Undercover investigation by Mercy for Animals

 

Slide 34

What happens to the calves?:

Frequently Asked Questions.” Veal Farm. The Beef Checkoff. Web.http://www.vealfarm.com/aboutvqa.aspx

Cows show extreme distress when calves taken from them:

Sacks, Oliver. “An Anthropologist on Mars: Seven Paradoxical Tales.” New York: Vintage Books. 1996. Print.

Photo: Agriprom

 

Slide 35

Cows milked 3 times per day to 10-12 months:

119 NAHMS Study.” U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1996. Pgs. 15-6.

Cows slaughtered around 4 or 5, naturally can live up to 25:

Wallace, RL. “Market cows: a potential profit center.” University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Print.

Photo: Gunnar Richter Namenlos.net via Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 36

Berkeley Farms:

Berkeley Farms owned by Dean Foods. Web. http://www.deanfoods.com/brands/berkeley.aspx

Photo: Berkeley Farms

 

Slide 37

Organic Label:

Labeling Organic Products.” Agricultural Marketing Service. USDA. Web.

http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3004446

Photo: Straus Farms

 

Slide 38

Photo: http://indulgy.com/post/eUcFGkIGf2/sweet-calves-kissing

 

Slide 39

Photo: Animal Place

 

Slide 40

Gestation Crate:

Crammed into Gestation Crates.” Life of America’s Breeding Pigs. Humane Society of the United States. 2014. Web. http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/gestation_crates.html

4 out of 5 sows in gestation crates:

U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Swine 2006, Part I: Reference of swine health and management practices in the United States.” (Cited from Foer Pgs. 184, 170, 157).

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 41

Video: Undercover investigation by HSUS

 

Slide 42

Farrowing Crate:

Philpot, Tom. “You won’t believe what pork producers do to pregnant pigs.” Mother Jones. July/August 2013 article. Web. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/06/pregnant-sows-gestation-crates-abuse

4 out of 5 sows in gestation crates:

U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Swine 2006, Part I: Reference of swine health and management practices in the United States.” (Cited from Foer Pgs. 184, 170, 157).

Sows showing signs of insanity:

Blackwell, “Production Practices and Well-Being: Swine.” (Cited from Foer Pgs. 183-187).

Photo: Humane League Labs

 

Slide 43

Piglet tails and testicles without anesthetic:

The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks,” National Academy of Science. 1999. (Cited from Foer 168).

Castrated meat:

Xue, J.L. and Dial, G.D. “Raising Intact Male Pigs for Meat: Detecting and Preventing Boar Taint.” American Association of Swine Practitioners. 1997. http://www.aasp.org/shap/issues/v5n4/v5n4p151 (Cited from Foer 187).

Pig Welfare:

The Welfare of Intensively Kept Pigs.” Scientific Veterinary Committee. September 30. 1997. Section 5.2.11, Section 5.2.2, Section 5.2.7. http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/oldcomm4/out17_en.pdf

Wood, Cindy. “Don’t Ignore Feet and Leg Soundness in Pigs.” Virginia Cooperative Extension. Jun. 2001. http://www.sites.ext.vt.edu/newsletter-archive/livestock/aps-01_06/aps-0375.html (Cited from Foer 185).

Photo: http://www.urbangreengirl.com/2011/02/09/why-i-chose-to-be-vegetarian-an-intimate-look-at-my-life/

 

Slide 44

Common Farming Practice Exemption:

Animal Law and Ethics, Issue 63 “Large-scale farmed animal abuse and neglect: law and its enforcement.” May 2011.

Photo: http://cuteanimalimages.com/super-cute-piglet/

 

Slide 45

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 47

Atlantic fish populations decreased 95%:

95% decline in mgratory fish in North Atlantic.” Wildlife Extra. Dec 2009. http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/migratory-fish.html#cr

Video: from Hedyla Lipseki

 

Slide 48

Bycatch:

Bycatch Threats.” World Wildlife Foundation. Web. http://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/bycatch

Koch, Veronique. “Bycatch Per Pound of Shrimp.” Fish Navy Films. May, 2013. Web. http://www.fishnavy.com/image/20-lbs-of-bycatch-per-pound-of-shrimp/

Photo: http://www.bycatch.moonfruit.com/

 

 

Slide 49

Aquaculture:

Sources of Eutrophication.” World Resources Institute.http://www.wri.org/our-work/project/eutrophication-and-hypoxia/sources-eutrophication

Photo: Julien Carnot

 

Slide 50

5 lb of wild-caught feeder fish:

How man pounds of other fish are required to produce one pound of salmon?” NOAA Fisheries. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/aquaculture/faqs/faq_feeds.html#17how

Wildlifeppl at en.wikipedia

 

Slide 53
Injury rate 3x higher, Cumulative trauma 33x higher, Production line rate today vs. 20 years ago, INS estimate, Not unionized:

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation. New York: Houghton, Mifflin. 2001. 173-174. Print.

Colorado wages:

Gardner, T. “Working Conditions in American Slaughterhouses: Worse than You Thought.” Reuters. Feb. 2001.

Photo: USDA

 

Slide 54

PTSD:

McWilliams, James. “PTSD in the Slaughterhouse.” The Texas Observer. 07 Feb 2012. Web. http://www.texasobserver.org/ptsd-in-the-slaughterhouse/

Photo: Dr. Temple Grandin

 

Slide 55

Late night cleaning crew:

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation. New York: Houghton, Mifflin. 2001. 176-178. Print.

Kansas Beef Plant:

Deaths of Three at Kansas Meat Packing Plant Investigated.” Oaklaoman. June, 1991. Web. http://newsok.com/deaths-of-three-at-kansas-meat-packing-plant-investigated/article/2359749

 

Slide 56

Photo: http://www.sunnyskyz.com/happy-pictures/162/Bunny-and-Piglet-Love

 

Slide 61

2-15x more feed:

Bittman, Mark. “Rethinking the Meat-Guzzler.” The New York Times. 27 Jan 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/weekinreview/27bittman.html?

Sustainability of Meat-based and Plant Based Diets and the Environment” Pimentel et al from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Cornell University. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

3 billion people:

Harvey, Fiona. “Better use of world’s existing cropland could feed 3 billion more people: study.” The Guardian. 17 July 2014.

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jul/17/world-cropland-feed-3-billion-more-people-study

 

Slide 62

Photo: Cowspiracy

 

Slide 63

Central American Beef Importation:

Smithsonian Institution, “Smithsonian Researchers Show Amazonian Deforestation Accelerating,” Science Daily. Web. 2002.

Amount of rainforest destroyed for S. American hamburgers:

The Environmental Beef with Meat.” The Bay Weekly. 2005.

Leading cause of loss of biodiversity and species endangerment:

Livestock impacts on the environment.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department. 2006.

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 64

260 Million Acres:

E/The Environmental Magazine. “What is the modern meat industry’s impact on the environment?” Earthtalk: Expert Answers to Everyday Questions about the Environment. 16-17. 2009. https://books.google.com/books?id=oIdv6zh-UXQC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=earth+talk+260+million+acres+forest&source=bl&ots=lZM2dCXruG&sig=-ogrldHj-qWcTSviMMHuHQgahJo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAmoVChMIopmIlvOVxgIVCimICh0KuAQ6#v=onepage&q=earth%20talk%20260%20million%20acres%20forest&f=false

Wildlife Services:

Atwood“New Data: 2.7 Million Animals Killed by Rogue Federal Wildlife Program in 2014.” Center for Biological Diversity. 13 April 2015.http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/news/press_releases/2015/wildlife-services-04-13-2015.html

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 66

Photo: Farmscape

 

Slide 67

Photo: Factory Farming Awareness Coalition

 

Slide 69

6504% increased use of Roundup:

Swanson, N.L. “GMO Crops Increase Pesticide Use.” Farm Wars. 20 Sep 2013. Web. http://farmwars.info/?p=11515

Meat Production – 1/3 Pesticide Use

Steinfeld, Henning et al. “Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. xxii. 2006. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/climatechange/doc/FAO%20report%20executive%20summary.pdf

Poisoning wilidlife & workers, killing bees & butterflies

Environmental Impacts.”http://www.panna.org/issues/persistent-poisons/environmental-impacts

Farmworkers.”http://www.panna.org/issues/frontline-communities/farmworkers

Conniff, Richard. “Tracking the Causes of Sharp Decline of the Monarch Butterfly.” Yale Environment 360. 1 Apr 2013. Web.http://e360.yale.edu/feature/tracking_the_causes_of_sharp__decline_of_the_monarch_butterfly/2634/

Anderson, Tom. “Pesticides, Continued: Butterfly Decline Linked to Use of Roundup.” The Connecticut Audubon Society. Web.http://www.ctaudubon.org/2013/04/pesticides-continued-butterfly-decline-linked-to-use-of-roundup/#sthash.yULp89da.dpbs

Pesticides and Honey Bees: State of the Science.” Pesticide Action Network North America. May 2012.http://www.panna.org/sites/default/files/Bees&Pesticides_SOS_FINAL_May2012.pdf

Photo: http://www.cgpgrey.com

 

Slide 70

80% Antibiotics:

Food, Farm Animals, and Drugs.” Natural Resources Defense Council. http://www.nrdc.org/food/saving-antibiotics.asp

Loglisci, Ralph. “New FDA Numbers Reveal Food Animals Consume Lion’s Share of Antibiotics.” Center for a Livable Future. 23 Dec 2010. Web. http://www.livablefutureblog.com/2010/12/new-fda-numbers-reveal-food-animals-consume-lion%E2%80%99s-share-of-antibiotics

Photo: www.modvigil.com via Wikimedia Commons

 

Slide 60

Acres of corn & soy crop harvested in 2000:

Major Crops Grown in the United States.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 27 Jun. 2012. Web. http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/ag101/cropmajor.html

Acres of Vegetables Harvested.” USDA Economic Research Service. Web.http://www.ers.usda.gov/

99% of soy crop fed to livestock:

Soybean.”Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2012. Web. 3 May. 2009.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/557184/soybean

40% of corn crop:

Toward a Sustainable Agriculture.” University of Wisconsin, Madison. Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems. n.d. Web.http://www.cias.wisc.edu/curriculum/modII/seca/modii_seca.html

Soil erosion from soy and corn, Sustainability of Meat-Based and Plant Based Diets and the Environment:

Sustainability of Meat-Based and Plant Based Diets and the Environment” Pimentel et al from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Cornell University. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

 

Slide 72

Animals produce 130x waste of human population:

Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. “Environment.”http://www.ncifap.org/issues/environment (Cited from Foer 174).

No waste-treatment:

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: EPA Needs More Information and a Clearly Defined Strategy to Protect Air and Water Quality from Pollutants of Concern.” (Cited from Foer 174).

 

Slide 73

Citizen Drone Project. www.factoryfarmdrones.com

 

Slide 75

Animal agriculture contributes 40% more greenhouse gases than all transportation:

U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006. Report.http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?newsID=20772&CR1=warning

Locavores:

Weber, Christopher L. and H. Scott Matthews. “Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States.” Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 42 (10) (2008): 3508-3513.

 

Slide 76

Photo: The Gates Notes

 

Slide 77

20% less meat:

Bittman, Mark. “Rethinking the Meat-Guzzler.” The New York Times. 27 Jan 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/weekinreview/27bittman.html?

 

Slide 78

Not Eating Meat One Day a Week:

Winston, Andrew. “Local Food or Less Meat? Data Tells The Real Story.” Harvard Business Review. 20 June 2011.https://hbr.org/2011/06/local-food-or-less-meat-data-t.html

Photo: Steve Garfield

 

Slide 81

Mandate to promote consumption:

Toufexis, Anastasia and Dick Thompson. “Playing Politics with Our Food,” Time Magazine. July. 1991. Web.http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,973395,00.html

Farming by proxy:

Wendell, Berry. Edited by Normal Wirzba. “The Art of the Commonplace.” Berkeley, CA. Counterpoint. 2003. (cited from Foer 89).

 

Slide 79

Photo:http://favim.com/image/228905/

 

Slide 84

Consumption Declining:

Daily Livestock Report” CME Group. Vol. 9, No. 243. 20 December 2011.

http://www.dailylivestockreport.com/documents/dlr%2012-20-2011.pdf

 

 

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