Environmental Impact of Animal Agriculture Citations

9 billion animals: "Farm Animal Statistics: Slaughter Totals." The Humane Society of the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2017.

Americans eat more than 200 pounds of meat every year: "Per Capita Consumption of Poultry and Livestock, 1965 to Estimated 2016, in Pounds." The National Chicken Council. N.p., 21 Sept. 2016. Web. 10 Apr. 2017.

 2-15x more feed: Cassidy, Emily S., Paul C. West, James S. Gerber, and Jonathan A. Foley. "Redefining Agricultural Yields: From Tonnes to People Nourished per Hectare." IOP Science (2013): n. pag. Web.

Feed an extra 2 billion people: Cassidy, Emily S., Paul C. West, James S. Gerber, and Jonathan A. Foley. "Redefining Agricultural Yields: From Tonnes to People Nourished per Hectare." IOP Science (2013): n. pag. Web.

¼ of all arable land used for livestock: "Livestock a Major Threat to Environment." Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. N.p., 29 Nov. 2006. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

Think Grass-Fed is Better? Think Again: Center For Biological Diversity. "Take Extinction Off Your Plate." Take Extinction Off Your Plate. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

Leading cause of loss of biodiversity and species endangerment: “Livestock impacts on the environment.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, 2006.

260 million acres: The Earth Magazine. Earthtalk: Expert Answers to Everyday Questions about the Environment: Selections from E - the Environmental Magazine's Nationally Syndicated Column. New York: Plume, 2009. Print.

175 threatened or endangered species: USDI-BLM, USDA-Forest Service. 1995. Rangeland Reform ’94 Final EIS

Wildlife Services: "2.7 Million Animals Killed by Federal Wildlife-destruction Program in 2016." Center for Biological Diversity. N.p., 14 Mar. 2017. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

Wildlife Services: "Program Data Report G." USDA-APHIS. USDA, 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

 Most GMO crops fed to livestock: Van Eenennaam, Alison L., and Amy E. Young. "Feeding GMO Crops to Livestock - BeefResearch New - Beef Issues Quarterly." Feeding GMO Crops to Livestock - BeefResearch New - Beef Issues Quarterly. Department of Animal Sciences, University of California, Davis, Mar. 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

"Recent Trends in GE Adoption." USDA ERS. N.p., 3 Nov. 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

"Contribution of GM Technology to the Livestock Sector." ISAAA. N.p., Aug. 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

 

⅓ of all pesticide use meat production: Steinfeld, Henning, Pierre Gerber, Tom Wassenaar, Vincent Castel, Mauricio Rosales, and Cees De Haan. Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Publication. Rome: FAO, 2006. Print.

 

Neonicitinoid colony collapse disorder: Dwyer, Marge. "Study Strengthens Link between Neonicotinoids and Collapse of Honey Bee Colonies." Harvard School of Public Health. N.p., 9 May 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

 

Neonic use on crops fed to livestock: LaJeunesse, Sara. "Rapid Increase in Neonicotinoid Insecticides Driven by Seed Treatments." Penn State University. Penn State University, 2 Apr. 2015. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

 

Pesticide poisoning in workers: Dearen, Jason. "Why U.S. Farmworkers Keep Getting Poisoned by Pesticides." St. Louis Post Dispatch. N.p., 3 Feb. 2016. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

 

Skipping one gallon of milk equal to skipping one month’s worth of showers: Lurie, Julia, and Alex Park. "It Takes HOW Much Water to Make Greek Yogurt?!" Mother Jones. N.p., 10 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

 

 California water useFulton, Julian, Heather Cooley, and Peter Gleick. "Assessment of California's Water Footprint." Pacific Institute. N.p., 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2017

 California water use graphic courtesy of Animal Legal Defense Fund.

___________________ manure 130x

Manure spraying: "Understanding Manure Irrigation." University of Wisconsin - Extension. N.p., 14 Apr. 2016. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

Spy Drones Expose Smithfield Factory Farms. Dir. Mark Devries. YouTube. Factory Farm Drones, 17 Dec. 2014. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

Factory farm runoff polluted 35,000 miles of river in 22 states: “Draft Unified National Strategy for Animal Feeding Operation”. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 11 Sept. 1998

 

 

Rural bodies of water unsafe: Millerbernd, Anne. "Many SW. Minn. Streams, Lakes Unsafe for Swimming, Fish." Star Tribune. N.p., 6 Mar. 2015. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Manure runoff leads to dead zone in Gulf of Mexico: Integrated Assessment of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Publication. N.p.: National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 2000. Print.

 

Meat production makes more GHG than transportation:

"Livestock a Major Threat to Environment." Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. N.p., 29 Nov. 2006. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Ruminant animals produce methane: "Monitoring Methane Emissions from Agriculture and Dairy Farming." Environmental Technology. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

More potent than CO2: "Overview of Greenhouse Gases." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 14 Feb. 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Animal waste releases nitrous oxide: Costa, J. R., C. Li, C. E. Cerri, and C. C. Cerri. "Measuring and Modeling Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Management: First Assessments under Brazilian Condition." Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

2C limit: Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich, et al. "Differential Climate Impacts for Policy-relevant Limits to Global Warming: The Case of 1.5 °C and 2 °C." Earth System Dynamics. Copernicus GmbH, 21 Apr. 2016. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

Agriculture alone will use most of carbon budget: Bailey, Rob, Antony Froggatt, and Laura Wellesley. "Livestock – Climate Change's Forgotten Sector: Global Public Opinion on Meat and Dairy Consumption." Chatham House. Chatham House, 03 Dec. 2014. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Not eating meat one day per week more effective than 100% local: Winston, Andrew. "Local Food or Less Meat? Data Tells The Real Story." Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review, 23 July 2014. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

If everyone ate no meat or cheese just one day per week: "Reducing Your Footprint." Reducing Your Footprint - 2011 Meat Eaters Guide | Meat Eater's Guide to Climate Change + Health | Environmental Working Group. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

United Nations “demitarian”: Harvey, Fiona. "Halve Meat Consumption, Scientists Urge Rich World." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 17 Feb. 2013. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Stockholm International Water Institute 1/6th as much meat: Vidal, John. "Food Shortages Could Force World into Vegetarianism, Warn Scientists." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 26 Aug. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

What about humane/local? Ketcham, Christopher. "Allan Savory's Holistic Management Theory Falls Short on Science." Sierra Club. The Sierra Club, 23 Feb. 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Demand for meat and dairy has decreased:

"US Sales of Dairy Milk Turn Sour as Non-dairy Milk Sales Grow 9% in 2015." Mintel. N.p., 20 Apr. 2016. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

Haspel, Tamar. "The Decline of the (red) Meat Industry — in One Chart." Fortune. Fortune, 27 Oct. 2015. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Demand for sustainable plant-based products increasing: "Global Meat Substitute Market Is Expected to Reach $5.2 Billion by 2020." MarketWatch. MarketWatch, 02 Feb. 2016. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

Meat and dairy companies investing in plant-based alternatives:

Kell, John. "Why Tyson Foods Is Investing in A Vegan Startup." Fortune. Fortune, 10 Oct. 2016. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

Ettinger, Jill. "Danone Shifts $1B Away from Dairy as WhiteWave Merger Finalizes." Organic Authority. N.p., 20 Feb. 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

Crawford, Elizabeth. "Rising Animal Welfare Concerns Push Farmers & Manufacturers to Rethink Humane Agriculture." FoodNavigator-USA. N.p., 20 Mar. 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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