FFAC Citations

Slide 3

Photo: http://animal.agwired.com/2008/09/03/foster-farms-now-crystal/

Slide 4


“Animal Feeding Operations” USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service

Web .nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/plantsanimals/livestock/afo/


All photos public domain from Wikimedia Commons

Slides 5-7

Jeannie Hudkins.  “Eat Like You Give a Damn: for the animals, for your health, for the planet” 2013, Mill City Press, Minneapolis, pp. 4-5




Slide 8

9 billion animals:

”Farm Animal Statistics: Slaughter Totals." Humane Society of the United States.  2016.

Web. humanesociety.org/news/resources/research/stats_slaughter_totals.html

Slide 9:

99% of all animal products:

“New poll shows majority uncomfortable with animal farming despite eating turkeys for Thanksgiving”, Sentience Institute. November 2017. Web.



Slide 12

Chickens produce 300 eggs/year, that’s 3x natural amount:

“History of Egg Production.” American Egg Board. Incredible Edible Egg. 2007. Web.http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg_facts_history2.html

Photo: Animal Place

Slide 13


“Animal Husbandry Guidelines for U.S. Egg-Laying Flocks”  United Egg Producers 2017, p. 9

Web. uepcertified.com

Photos: http://www.humanemyth.org/images/1059.1.jpg


Slide 14

Video: Undercover investigation by Mercy for Animals

Slide 15

67 square inches FF statistic:

“Animal Husbandry Guidelines for U.S. Egg-Laying Flocks”, United Egg Producers,  2017, p. 19

Web. uepcertified.com

Photo 1: Wikimedia Commons

Photo 2: Compassion Over Killing

Slide 16

Chickens live for 6-8 years & slaughtered at 1-2 years old FF statistic:

Berry, Joe. “Often Asked Questions about Poultry and Eggs.” Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service, Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Web.


% of eggs from caged hens statistic:

United Egg Producers, “Animal Husbandry Guidelines for U.S. Egg-Laying Flocks”  2017

Web. uepcertified.com

Photo: Animal Place

Slide 17

250 million male layers discarded each year:

“No More Culls? Male Layer Chicks Might Soon Be Spared Death Sentence”  The Poultry Site. 2017, Web thepoultrysite.com/articles/3693/no-more-culls-male-layer-chicks-might-soon-be-spared-death-sentence/

Photo: Humane League Labs

Slide 18

Photo: kittybloger.wordpress.com/2012/06/17/kitty-gives-baby-chick-a-piggy-back-ride/

Slide 19

Photo: Animal Place

Slide 20

Broilers grow so rapidly:

Martin, D. “Researcher Studying Growth-Induced Diseases in Broilers.” Feedstuffs. 1997. Print.

Average weight increase, drop in time to market, daily feed requirements:

William, Boyd. “Making Meat: Science, Technology, and American Poultry Production,” Technology and Culture. 2001. (cited from Foer 106).

Daily growth rate increase:

Knowles, T.G. “Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention.” PLoS ONE. 2008. (cited from Foer 48). http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001545

Photo: Food, Inc.

Slide 21

26% broiler chickens severely crippled:

Kestin, S.C. “Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype.” Veterinary Record. 29 Aug. 1992: p.131, pp. 190-194. Print.

90% broiler chickens can’t walk normally:

Kestin, S.C. “Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype.” Veterinary Record. 29 Aug. 1992: p.131, pp.190-194. Print.

Photo  chickenrescueandrehabilitation.com/2010/09/

Slide 22

Workers crate 105 chickens in 3.5 min:

“Blood, Sweat, and Fear: Workers’ Rights in US Meat and Poultry Plants.” New York: Human Rights Watch. 2004. (cited from Foer 104).

30% birds arriving with freshly broken bones:

T.G. Knowles. “Handling and Transport of Spent Hens,” World’s Poultry Science Journal. 1994. pp.. 60-61 (cited from Foer 132).

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Slide 23

“Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter.“ USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Web. nal.usda.gov/awic/humane-methods-slaughter-act

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Slide 24

“A Critical Review of Electrical Water-Bath Stun Systems for Poultry Slaughter and Recent Developments in Alternative Technologies”, Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy Animal Studies Repository, 2010. Web.



“The Need for Legislation and Elimination of Electrical Immobilization”. United Poultry Concerns



Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Slide 26

Cage free:

“Cage-Free vs. Battery-Cage Eggs.” The Humane Society of the United States. http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/cage-free_vs_battery-cage.html

Photo: Wikimedia commons


Slide 27

Free range:

“Fact Sheet: Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms.” USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Apr. 2011. Web. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/food-labeling/meat-and-poultry-labeling-terms/meat-and-poultry-labeling-terms

Photo: Animal Legal Defense Fund


Slide 28

Organic Label:

“Labeling Organic Products.” Agricultural Marketing Service. USDA. Web.


Photo: USDA


Slide 29

Photo: Herbert T, via Wikipedia


Slide 30

75% of adults worldwide are lactose intolerant to some extent:

“Improved Lactose Digestion and Intolerance among African-American Adolescent Girls Fed a Dairy-rich Diet.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2000. Web. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812376

Photo: Animal Place


Slide 31

Artificial insemination:

Webb, D.W. “Artificial Insemination of Dairy Cattle.” University of Florida Electronic Data Information.Reviewed June 2003. Web. ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00004730/00001

Photo: http://www.thebeefsite.com/articles/721/artificial-insemination-for-beef-cattle


Slide 32

Calves separated from their mothers soon after birth:

“Early separation of cow and calf has long-term effects on social behavior”. Science Daily. April 2015. Web sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150428081801.htm


Slide 33

Cows milked 3 times per day to 10-12 months:

“Is three-times-a-day milking for you?”. Michigan State University Extension. June 2011. Web.


Photo: Gunnar Richter Namenlos.net via  Wikimedia Commons


Slide 34

  Photo: indulgy.com/post/eUcFGkIGf2/sweet-calves-kissing


Slide 36

Gestation Crate:

“Crammed into Gestation Crates.”  Humane Society of the United States. 2014. Web. humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/gestation_crates.html

Farrowing Crate:

Philpot, Tom. “You won’t believe what pork producers do to pregnant pigs.” Mother Jones. July/August 2013 article. Web. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/06/pregnant-sows-gestation-crates-abuse

Sows showing signs of insanity:

Blackwell, “Production Practices and Well-Being: Swine.” (Cited from Foer Pgs. 183-187).


Slide 37

Piglet tails and testicles without anesthetic:

“The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks,” National Academy of Science. 1999. (Cited from Foer 168).

Castrated meat:

“Castration of pigs”, Virginia Cooperative Extension Newsletter Archive, Livestock Update, January 2008






Slide 38

Common Farming Practice Exemption:

“Large-scale farmed animal abuse and neglect: law and its enforcement” Animal Law and Ethics, Issue 63, May 2011.

Ag-gag laws

“Ag-gag Laws Keep Animal Cruelty Behind Closed Doors”. The Humane Society of the United States. Web.  humanesociety.org/issues/campaigns/factory_farming/fact-sheets/ag_gag.html

Photo: http://cuteanimalimages.com/super-cute-piglet/


Slide 39

Photo: Wikimedia Commons


Slide 41

Fish stocks fully fished or overfished:

“Future of world fish production depends on urgent action to combat falling fish stocks” Oceana,

July 2016, Web. oceana.org/press-center/press-releases/future-world-fish-production-depends-urgent-action-combat-falling-fish



Slide 41

Photo: Wikimedia Commons


Slide 42

Video: Ocean Defender- Hawaii



Slide 43


“Bycatch Threats” World Wildlife Foundation. Web. worldwildlife.org/threats/bycatch

“Reducing Bycatch in Shrimp Trawlers: Could efforts in North Carolina Provide a Solution?” The Fish Site April 2016. Web. thefishsite.com/articles/reducing-bycatch-in-shrimp-trawlers-could-efforts-in-north-carolina-provide-a-solution

Photo: http://www.bycatch.moonfruit.com/



Slide 44


“Effects of Aquaculture or Fish Farming on Ocean Health”. The Seafood Watch Program of the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Web.


Photo: Wikimedia Commons


Slide 45


“Thailand: Forced Labor, Trafficking Persist in Fishing Fleets”, Human Rights Watch January 2018. Web.



Slide 48

Cumulative trauma injuries / slaughterhouse workers:

“Inspection Guidance for Poultry Slaughtering and Poultry Processing Establishments”, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, United States Department of Labor. October 2015

Web. osha.gov/dep/enforcement/poultry_processing_10282015.html

No health insurance:

“Slaughterhouse workers” Food Empowerment Project



“Amputations abound at Tyson Foods, OSHA records shed more light on industrial food production” The Pump Handle. January 2016. Web.


Diapers in slaughterhouses:

“Poultry Workers, Denied Bathroom Breaks, Wear Diapers: Oxfam Report” nbc news May 2016. Web. nbcnews.com/business/business-news/poultry-workers-denied-bathroom-breaks-wear-diapers-oxfam-report-n572806

Photo: USDA


Slide 49


McWilliams, James. “PTSD in the Slaughterhouse.” The Texas Observer. 07 Feb 2012. Web. texasobserver.org/ptsd-in-the-slaughterhouse/


Slide 50

Cleaning Crew:

“The American meat industry’s dark secret” Business Insider, January 2018. Web.



Kansas Beef Plant:

“Deaths of Three at Kansas Meat Packing Plant Investigated.” Oaklahoman. June, 1991. Web. http://newsok.com/deaths-of-three-at-kansas-meat-packing-plant-investigated/article/2359749


Slide 51

Photo: http://www.sunnyskyz.com/happy-pictures/162/Bunny-and-Piglet-Love



Slide 53

“The Triple Whopper Environmental Impact of Global Meat Production” Time. December 2013. Web.



Slide 55

“Animal Feed” Sustainable Table, GRACE Communications Foundation. Web.



Slide 56

Animals: a really inefficient source of food

“Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare”. IOPscience, August 2013.

Web. iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034015/meta;jsessionid=47AFAE9A599CA8A01466213D8B8D2B51.c5.iopscience.cld.iop.org



Slide 57

Feeding the world:

“Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare”. IOPscience, August 2013.

Web. iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034015/meta;jsessionid=47AFAE9A599CA8A01466213D8B8D2B51.c5.iopscience.cld.iop.org



Slide 58


“The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon”. IOPscience, April 2010. Web. iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024002/meta



Slide 59

Carrington, Damian. “Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83%of wild mammals” study The Guardian, May 2018. Web.



Slide 61

Most GMO crops in the US are fed to animals on factory farms:

Van Eenennaam, Alison L., and Amy E. Young. " Feeding GMO Crops to Livestock - Beef Research New - Beef Issues Quarterly.’ Department of Animal Sciences, University of California, Davis, Mar. 2016. Web. beefissuesquarterly.com/beefissuesquarterly.aspx?id=5672

"Recent Trends in GE Adoption." USDA ERS. N.p., 3 Nov. 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

"Contribution of GM Technology to the Livestock Sector." ISAAA. N.p., Aug. 2016. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

Meat production accounts for over ⅓ of all pesticide use:

Steinfeld, Henning, Pierre Gerber, Tom Wassenaar, Vincent Castel, Mauricio Rosales, and Cees De Haan. Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Publication. Rome: FAO, 2006. Print.

Pesticides are toxic:

Neonicitinoid colony collapse disorder: Dwyer, Marge. "Study Strengthens Link between Neonicotinoids and Collapse of Honey Bee Colonies." Harvard School of Public Health. N.p., 9 May 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

Neonic use on crops fed to livestock: LaJeunesse, Sara. "Rapid Increase in Neonicotinoid Insecticides Driven by Seed Treatments." Penn State University. Penn State University, 2 Apr. 2015. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.

Pesticide poisoning in workers: Dearen, Jason. "Why U.S. Farmworkers Keep Getting Poisoned by Pesticides." St. Louis Post Dispatch. N.p., 3 Feb. 2016. Web. 12 Apr. 2017.


Slide 62

80% of antibiotics are used on animals:

Johns Hopkins, Center for a Liveable Future, “Food Production and Public Health”, 2012




Slide 64

Alex Park and Julia Lurie, “It takes HOW much water to make Greek yogurt??”, Mother Jones March 2014



Slide 66

Farm animals in the US produce 100x as much waste as the entire US human population:

Gerba, C. P., & Smith, J. E. (2004).  Sources of pathogenic microorganisms and their fate during land application of wastes. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34(1), 42-48. Retrieved August 27, 2012.

Cited on sustainabletable.org/906/waste-management

Slide 67

Video: Citizen Drone Project. www.factoryfarmdrones.com

Liquified waste is sprayed onto surrounding land:

Manure spraying: "Understanding Manure Irrigation." University of Wisconsin - Extension. N.p., 14 Apr. 2016. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.


Slide 69

Meat production makes more greenhouse gases than all the planes, trains, and cars in the world combined:

"Livestock a Major Threat to Environment." Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. N.p., 29 Nov. 2006. Web. 11 Apr. 2017.

Ruminant animals produce methane: "Monitoring Methane Emissions from Agriculture and Dairy Farming." Environmental Technology. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

More potent than CO2: "Overview of Greenhouse Gases." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 14 Feb. 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

Animal waste releases nitrous oxide: Costa, J. R., C. Li, C. E. Cerri, and C. C. Cerri. "Measuring and Modeling Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Management: First Assessments under Brazilian Condition." Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

More potent than CO2: "Understanding Global Warming Potentials" EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 14 Feb. 2017. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.

Slide 70

Greenhouse gas emissions

Shefali Sharma, “Big Meat and Dairy are Heating Up our Planet” Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, July 2018




Slide 71

If everyone in the US ate no meat or cheese just one day per week, it would be like not driving 91 billion miles, or taking 7.6 billion cars off the road: "Reducing Your Footprint." Reducing Your Footprint - 2011 Meat Eaters Guide | Meat Eater's Guide to Climate Change + Health | Environmental Working Group. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2017.


Slide 72

Photo: :http://favim.com/image/228905/



Slide 83

Save money:

“A Vegetarian Diet Can Save You Around $750 Each Year When Compared to a Meat - Eating Diet”. Medical Daily. October 2015. Web. medicaldaily.com/vegetarian-diet-can-save-you-around-750-each-year-when-compared-meat-eating-diet-356670



Slide 84

Plant-based foods: a growing market

“U.S. Plant Based Foods Industry Tops $5 Billion in Annual Sales”. Plant Based Foods Association. March 2017. Web.


“Dairy Alternative Market is anticipated to cross USD 34 Billion by 2024”. PR Newswire. January 2018. Web. prnewswire.com/news-releases/dairy-alternatives-market-is-anticipated-to-cross-usd-34-billion-by-2024-300583922.html

“Get Ready For A Meatless Meat Explosion, As Big Food Gets On Board”. Fast Company. December 2017. Web. fastcompany.com/40508181/get-ready-for-a-meatless-meat-explosion-as-big-food-gets-on-board


Slide 87

Clean Meat:

“Lab-Grown Meat May Save a Lot More than Farm Animals’ Lives”. nbc news. April 2017. Web.